Turns out the goblin I killed was the leader of the camp.
Despite that, the camp wasn't automatically disbanded. I found 3 other goblins sitting nearby, one of them I killed, another one one of my companions killed, and the last ran away.
I've decided to get to another camp up north. On my way I found a town, at the center of which was some giant, wooden, fortress-like structure. I didn't trade anything tho, because I already have more than enough plump helmets I stole from a farmer and a full set of iron armor, an iron shield, and an iron long sword.
EDIT: Ooh -- I think I found a dungeon underneath that structure, meaning that structure was likely the town's keep.
EDIT 2: I heard footsteps, so I followed them. Then I saw several corpses lying on the floor. Cue sneak mode.
EDIT 3: I found a boss. Imma sneak around some more and then try to kill his gang if I can.