What I do is I dig into a cliffside 3x20. At the end, I have a 3x3 down staircase. Just before that, I have a one tile section in the middle where I put a drawbridge to act as a seal, just in case. Then before that, I have a 5x5 dug out for a trade depot. Then everything before that is lined with cage traps.
On the next level, I have all my workshops, assuming it is a level with soil. If it isn't, I find a level with all soil. The reason for this is because I don't want to have to haul stone off my future stockpiles. I make all my stockpiles 11x11, with room for further expansion. I put my workshops inside the rooms as well, except for the butcher shop, which I make a room for all by itself, where I also pasture my dogs and cage my cats.
On the next level, I have my living quarters, which includes lodgings, hospital, and a barracks. My hospital and barracks are 11x11 in size, and depending on if it is a noble or not, I have both 3x3 rooms and 5x5 rooms. This is all done in the stone so I can smooth and engrave everything.
On the next level, I have my dining room. It is ~22x22 tiles large (I cant remember, but it is large). I have my tables set up in lines horizontally, with room in the middle for statues and levers.
On the next level, I have my burial chambers. I have mausoleums for people I like, and a common area for people who have not done anything exceptional in their time.
I then dig down until I find magma, usually in the first year. When I hit the sea or find a tube, I dig out a long hallway for two magma forges and two magma smelters. I have an ore and a bar stockpile right next to them. Then below I dig out the same hallway so that the forges can get their fuel. Then I dig a narrow corridor to the magma, smooth the stone next to the magma, put up and link a floodgate, open it, carve a fortification on the smoothed stone to allow the magma to flow forth, allow the chamber to flood with magma, then close the floodgate. All behind a securely locked door so that no stupid dwarfs decided to go in there and drown (I have temperature turned off for FPS gain).
Up on the surface, I have a pasture for animals and a refuse pile. This is all enclosed inside a wall, with entrances spanning from the downward stair case in my initial tunnel to my fort. I have drawbridges in front of these entrances just in case of flying creatures.
And that's pretty much it for my basic fort. Once that is all said and done, all my miners have to do is exploratory mining (with the help of dfvdig) and expansion for stockpiles and rooms.